Diamond is the birthstone for April and the gemstone that marks the 60th and 75th wedding anniversary.
Diamonds are among nature’s most precious and beautiful creations. Diamond is the hardest gem of all, formed from one element, carbon, under high temperature and pressure conditions deep below the earth’s surface. Diamond is the hardest material on earth; 58 times harder than any other natural material.
In 2002, a coalition of governments, non-governmental organizations, and the diamond industry established the Kimberley Process to control the export and import of rough diamonds to eliminate the trade in conflict diamonds. Today 99% of diamonds in the marketplace are conflict free.
The amount of a diamond’s color is rated on a scale of D – Z. Gemologists measure the colorlessness of a diamond to rate the color.
Clarity grades are based on the number, size, relief, and positions of inclusions that can be seen under 10x magnification.
Diamond cuts affect their brilliance, fire, and scintillation. Precise cutting is necessary to provide maximum effect to its proportions and symmetry. The number of facets affects the pattern of the reflections in a diamond rather than overall brightness. Diamonds with more facets have more numerous smaller reflections instead of fewer larger reflections. Brightness is a function of proportions, polish and symmetry, not the number of facets.
Diamonds are sold by weight. One carat equals 0.20 grams. One in 1,000 diamonds weighs more than one carat.
Sudden and extreme temperature changes threaten a diamond’s stability
Care and Cleaning
Diamonds can be cleaned safely by using warm water and a mild soap with a soft toothbrush. It is recommended to have your diamond cleaned professionally at least once a year.
Diamond color and clarity treatments can be affected by heat and chemicals.
- MINERAL: Diamond
- CHEMISTRY: C
- COLOR: Colorless
- REFRACTIVE INDEX: 2.42
- BIREFRINGENCE: None
- SPECIFIC GRAVITY: 3.52 (+/-0.01)
- MOHS HARDNESS: 10
(Gem Encyclopedia Diamond)